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Art History

Art Of Africa

African Art: Aesthetics And Meaning
Electronic catalog, including descriptions, of an exhibit at the University of Virginia.

African Art
Concise web site with links. A quick, general introduction.

African Art History Links
The links given here are sites selected by the department of African Art History at Ohio University as helpful research points. The list is non-comprehensive, although it is extensive.

African Masks: University of Florida
Well-researched links to mask sites and to general African art and culture sites.

African Sculpture
An selective exhibition of 25 images culled from the over eleven thousand objects in the sub-Saharan African collections of The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. You will find examples of material culture and ethnography- weapons, tools, textiles, utensils, implements, and undecorated items of daily use that has well as numerous art objects made for ceremonial, magical, and decorative purposes. Click African Sculpture: Criteria and Methods of Selection for textual information about the collection.

African Studies Quarterly
Articles on African culture and art are sometimes included in this publication.

Akan Cultural Symbols Project: Ghana
Illustrated discussion of The Akan of Ghana and La Cote d'Ivoire use of pictographs and ideograms.

Art and Life in Africa Online
Art and Life in Africa Online has been adapted from similar material developed for the Art and Life in Africa CD-ROM being produced at The University of Iowa. This site contains information about African Art and Culture, albeit in an abbreviated form. There is a search engine and new articles are added regularly.

G.I. Jones Photographic Archive of Southeast Nigerian Art and Culture
An online archive of over 300 photographs. The photos were taken in the 1930s by the late Dr. G.I. Jones of University of Cambridge. Most of the images capture Igbo masquerades in performance. This is an archive of digitized photographs depicting the arts and cultures of southeastern Nigeria. The collection of photographs of Southeastern Nigerian art includes examples from Ibibio, Igbo, Ijo and Ogoni speaking peoples. The photographs are unique for the creative brilliance of the art represented, the quality of the photography itself, and the cultural and historical significance of photographic records from this time period in Nigeria.

Magical Faces of Africa
Online exhibit from the Musée Dapper in Paris. These images are taken from the permanent exhibition, which occupies three floors of the museum. "The mask was traditionally used in Africa in the majority of ceremonies: fertility or initiation rites, religious or funeral celebrations, but also theatrical or comic performances often linked to the deepest ethnic myths. The mask confers on the person wearing it - for the duration of the ceremony - the essence and the powers of the spirits or ancestors it symbolizes."

National Museum of African Art: The SMITHSONIAN
A very complete site with information, photographs and links. "As a leading center for the visual arts of Africa, the National Museum of African Art fosters and sustains--through exhibitions, collections, research, and public programs--an interest in and an understanding of the diverse cultures in Africa as these are embodied in aesthetic achievements in the visual arts."

Sokari Douglas Camp
This site features the work of the Nigerian born sculptor Sokari Douglas Camp and a considerable body of her new work

The Sukuma Museum Tanzania Africa
More a site for cultural information, including an essay by Mark H.C. Bessire, this site includes photographs and other documentary records of Tanzanian society.

Tamarin Virtual Gallery
While this is a commercial site, featuring the art on contemporary artists, tribal art objects are also illustrated and described here in detail.

Yoruba and Akan Art
This is an experimental on-line catalog of an exhibit first presented at the Lakeview Museum of Arts and Sciences in Peoria, Illinois in 1994. This is an excellent site for information on the Yoruba, Akan and Asante people's art and culture.

Art of the Far East

Antique Chinese Porcelain Collector's Page
While this is a commercial site, it is quite impressive. The history of porcelain and the techniques for making antique porcelain are described in detail, as is the history of the Swedish East India Company. There is a glossary of Chinese pottery and porcelain and a search engine. There is also a directory of Chinese and Japanese pottery marks.

Asian Art History
Perhaps the best and most easily navigated site online, links are organized by country.

Asia Society
Asia Society's arts and culture page can be found at Click here to view the collection. The Asia Society is America's leading institution dedicated to fostering under-standing of Asia

Asian Historical Architecture
A well organized site, this photographic survey of Asia's architectural heritage features over 6100 photos of 433 sites in sixteen countries, with extensive background information and 'virtual tours'.

Chinese and Japanese Art History: WWW Virtual Library
Very extensive listing of hundreds of links in this subject area, organized by period and location for the WWW Virtual Library by New York University.

Huntington Archive of Asian Art
Beautiful site with links to online exhibitions. The John C. and Susan L. Huntington Photographic Archive of Buddhist and Related Art contains nearly 300,000 original color slides and black and white and color photographs of art and architecture throughout Asia. Countries covered in the collection include India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, China, Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Myanmar, Burma. The Huntingtons are both Professors of Art.

Japanese Art and Western Influence
While there are many studies that have been done on Japanese influence on Western art, the reverse is discussed here. Objects of Japanese Art and Craft that were made with influence of Western culture are described and discussed.

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Asian Wing
Includes text about and images from the Museum's vast collection. See the introduction to Asian Art for a general overview. The collection of Asian art at the Metropolitan Museum is the largest and most comprehensive in the West.

Origins of Angkor Archeological Project
The Origins of Angkor Archaeological Project is a multi-disciplinary research project being undertaken by the University of Otago Department of Anthropology and the Fine Arts Department of Thailand. The aim of the project is to assess the seminal aspects of the social, cultural and technological development in the Mun River valley of Northeast Thailand. Included here is a virtual excavation, and artifact slide show.

Islamic Art

Art of the Middle Ages: Islamic
Very well researched links to valuable sites, maintained by Professor Witcombe at Sweet Briar College.

Flowers Underfoot: Indian Carpets of the Mughal Era
Photographs and description of seven Mughal carpets from the Metropolitan Museum.

Islamic Arts and Architectural Page
Navigating this site is a little tricky, but the information provided is interesting. Architecture links lead to articles on not only engineering but metal work. The calligraphy link leads to information on the history of Islamic calligraphy, the instruments used and the units of proportion employed. There are links to Islamic coins as well as to Oriental carpets and their creation, including weaving and dyeing, as well as the classification of rugs.

Islamic Patterns
Informative essay written by Jane Norman, consultant, education department, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Islam
Overview, links to the collection and additional information from on of the world's greatest museums.

Oriental Carpets
Interesting online version of an exhibition organized by the Textile Museum and the Math Forum in 1997. You'll find discussions on symmetry and patterns and carpet making as well as links to educational sites.

Persian Art Through the Ages
An excellent source, organized by period from Neolithic to Hellenistic to Islamic (samanids, seljuks,etc.), to the Mongol through the Qajar periods.

Art Of Cuba

Arizona State University Art Museum - Cuban Art from the permanent collection.
An online exhibt and extensive notes are featured here. Artists displayed include: Pedro Alvarez, Belkis Ayón, Abel Barroso, Jacqueline Brito, Yamilys Brito, Patricia Clark, Carlos Estévez, René Francisco, Carlos Garaicoa, Luis Gómez, Kcho, Los Carpinteros, Meira Marrero, Sandra Ramos, Fernando Rodríguez, Esterio Segura, José A. Toirac, Tonel (Antonio Eligio Fernández), and Osvaldo Yero.

Arte de Cuba
This site features the works of contemporary Cuban artists currently working in Oriente province. Artists featured here include Aguilera, Beltran, Botalin, Caboverde, Estrada, Ferrer, Ochoa, Pouya and Quiala. The organization behind this site is the Eastern Cuba Cultural Exchange Association whose mission it is to foster an environment of goodwill through the sharing of cultural ideas and the celebration of diversity

Center for the Study of Cuban Art - Cuban Art Space
Part of the Center for Cuban Studies, this site features contemporary Cuban art, with an emphasis on revolutionary themes.

Cuban Art on the Move - BBC
A BBC news article a group of Cuban artists who have taken their art work on the road, as a response to Cuban Art being sold now exclusively to tourists in Havana.

Cuban Country information: Art and Culture
Links to a variety of sites.

Cubarte - El Portal de la Cultura Cubana
An official Cuban site on art in Cuba. Slow loading, but be patient. There are direct links to Cuban art, as well as to music and culture. Featured are articles and publications edited in the section, Ojo Con Arte with Nelson Herrera Ysla. English and Spanish available.

Cuban Music, Art and Dance
Brief description of the art and culture of Cuba.

Inside/Outside: Contemporary Cuban Art
The catalog of an incredible exhibition and collaboration between Cuban artists and Wake Forest University. Extensive discussion on individual artists and on the state of fine arts in Cuba, as well as photographs of representative works. A must see!

Selecciónes Cubanas : Selections from the Papers of
Cuban American Artists at the Archives of American Art
This online, Smithsonian Institute exhibition " is an effort to reveal, through letters, sketches, photographs, and oral history interviews, the creativity in the lives of five important and influential Cuban artists: Enrique Riverón, Ramón Guerrero, Humberto Dionisio, Arturo Rodríguez and his wife, Demi, and to provide a sampling of the Archives' growing Cuban American resources." "The papers of Cuban Americans at the Archives of American Art include the primary source material of painters, sculptors, photographers, collectors, dealers, critics, historians, and curators as well as records of several galleries and a museum."

Western Art


Catal Huyuk: Article
Article on the city with images of its art from Gnosis Magazine.

Cave Paintings of India
Table of contents leads to images and articles about cave painting in India, including the prehistoric art at Bhimabetaka.

Chauvet Pont D'Arc
Website for information about the cave discovered in 1994. This site provides information on the authentication and preservation process as well as additional data on geographic factors and dating.

The official French government site for the famous Lascaux cave, home of some of the most spectacular prehistoric paintings yet discovered. This site includes a virtual tour, history of the discovery of the cave, and explanation for its closing due to preservation issues. The site also provides interactive learning opportunities.

Musee des Antiquites Nationales
This is an online exhibition on the chronological evolution of the Magdalenian culture over the whole Pyrenean territory, including Aquitaine, Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon. Includes photographs of items.

Prehistoric Art: Early Nomads of the Altaic Region
This rich and fascinating collection located at the famed Hermitage Museum includes pieces from the Altai mountains. Items date to the Scythian-Sakae period (6th-4th centuries BC). Additional links to exhibits at the Hermitage on Neolithic and Eneolithic art, Koban and Colchaion cultures and the Scythians and Samaratains is also given.

Seven Palaeolithic Figurines from the Louis Alexandre Jullien Collection
Seven palaeolithic figurines from the Canadian Museum of Civilization. Historic background for these works is given as are many other links.

Southern Africa's Caves
Images from these caves and a map of their locations.

Stone Pages - Web guide to Megalithic Europe
Site featuring extensive information on the art and engineering of Megalithic sites throughout Europe. Photographs and extensive information on over 500 sites.

Venus of Willendorf
Chris Whitcomb at Sweet Briar College put this site together about the Venus of Willendorf as well as other images of women created in stone during prehistoric times.

Ancient Egypt

Abu Simbel
Description with very clear photographs of the extraordinary architecture and statuary of Abu Simbel.

Ancient Egypt: Egyptian Museum in Cairo
One of the most important collections of Egyptian art, this is the official site of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Hundreds of items are included here. Descriptions of the predynastic, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom are also given. There are even games.

Ancient Egypt Magazine: Online
Articles on the Old Kingdom and the Berlin Museum.

Ancient Egypt: Metropolitan Museum of Art
View online highlights of this fabulous collection. Descriptions are given to all images.

Ancient Egypt: Mclung Museum
Online exhibit of artifacts.

Cyber Journey through Egypt
Interactive cyber journey. A bit garish, but it does offer you the chance to see panoramic shots of the great monuments and sites. Also features online interviews with archeologists.

Images of women in ancient art
The materials here include the syllabus, discussion questions and assignments for the Honors Seminar IMAGES OF WOMEN IN ANCIENT ART at Sweet Briar College, as well as articles, images and other information. This site was compiled and written by Chris Witcombe, Professor of Art History.

Interactive Map of Egypt
This interactive map of Egypt can be clicked to see sharp, annotated photographs and suffcient documentation about the many sites throughout the country.

Karnak: Temple of Ramses III - NOVA
This online version of the popular NOVA television program on PBS, explores the temple of Karnak.

The Pyramids: National Geographic
Interactive site lets you explore these wonders of Ancient Egyptian architecture.

Assyrian Treasures from the city of Kalhu (Nimrud)
Maps, description and photographs of objects from the tombs of the Assyrian Queens Yaba, Banitu, & Atalia.

Discoveries at Ninevah
The entire text of Austen Henry Layard's work first printed in 1854.

Beautifully designed website from the British Museum featuring information on the palace of Ashurnasirpal II and the Royal Tombs of Ur.

Oriental Institute and Museum at the University of Chicago
Virtual tour of the collection.

Treasures from the Royal Tomb at Ur
Rare and exquisite Sumerian artifacts from the renowned, 4500-year-old royal cemetery at Ur -- the city famed in the Bible as the home of the patriarch Abraham are discussed in this online version of an exhibit.

Ancient Greece

The Architecture of Ancient Greece
Wonderful site housed at the University of Colorado providing information on the architecture of ancient Athens, Epidauros, Mycenae, Delphi, Olympia and Crete.

Metropolitan Museum: Greek and Roman Art
Highlights from one of the world's outstanding museum collections.

Minoan Art
Excellent site created by Dr. Basic for his University of Oklahoma class on this subject. Extensive information and image files on Minoan, Mycenaean, and Cycladic pottery, sculpture, painting and jewelry.

Perseus Project at Tufts University
A massive project. Begin with the Overview of Greek Art at Thomas R. Martin, An Overview of Classical Greek History from Homer to Alexander. Click on keywords highlighted in blue for images and examples cited in the text. You can also search the individual catalogs for images. (Coin, sculpture, etc..)

Sculpture of Ancient Greece
University of Colorado site with articles and images organized by period, including the Archaic, Classical, Late Classical and Hellenstic periods and a special category entitled, The Female Figure.



Etruscan Art
A beautiful site designed by Dr. Rozmeri Basic, University of Oklahoma for his class. Photographs and text describing pottery, canopic urns, terracotta and stone sculptures, bronzes and tomb art. This site requires Shock Wave, which can be easily downloaded.

Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome
Site created by a Professor Curran at University of Buffalo, this site takes its name from an ancient Roman Politician and art collector. Photos of places and objects of interest are organized by type of photograph (color or black and white) and by location.

Metropolitan Museum: Greek and Roman Art
Highlights from one of the world's outstanding museum collections.

The Mysterious Etruscans
A rich site describing Etruscan art and culture.

Petra: Excavations
Site tour of the archaeological excavations of the Great Temple at Petra, Jordan, conducted by Brown University Professor, Martha Sharp Joukowsky. Site includes a history of Petra.

Pompeii Forum
This online site features hundreds of photographs of Pompeii. The Pompeii Forum Project is an interdisciplinary collaborative research venture sponsored by the NEH and, the University of Virginia. The goals are to provide the first systematic documentation of the architecture and decoration of the forum, to interpret evidence as it pertains to Pompeii's urban history, and to make wider contributions to both the history of urbanism and contemporary problems of urban design.

Roman Art and Architecture
A very complete site housed at the University of Colorado. Text and images are organized by historical periods and location.

The Roman Empire in Africa
Interactive virtual museum site illuminating the wonder of Lepcis Magna. Lepcis Magna is one of the best preserved, and most significant Roman cities in Africa.

Trajan's Rome
Images and accompanying text.

Virtual Gallery of Greek and Roman Sculpture
. The Virtual Sculpture Gallery is a teaching and research tool designed to support the study of Greek and Roman antiquity by reproducing fifteen ancient works as they were meant to be seen, in color. Scythians and Celts see also Medieval for Celtic Medieval Art

Art of the Steppe Nomads: From Scythians to Magyars
Scythian and sarmatian art as well as Hun's, Avar's and Magyars. (Iron Age to 6th century)

Celtic Art and Culture
Image search for images from Celtic history including Hallstatt and La Tene culture.

Iron Age Europe
A very short page on items from the Iron Age. Part of a larger site constructed at Beloit College.

Kernunnos Group
Celtic numismatics with images of hundreds of sculpted coins of the Celts.

Scythian Slide Show
This web site which contains over 150 slide images from the Prof. John Haskins' Slide Collection, maintained by the Department of the History of Art and Architecture, University of Pittsburgh. Slides are annotated.

Middle Ages

Art of the Middle Ages
Huge site created by Professor Whitcomb at Sweet Briar College, and organized by period including Early Christian, Byzantine, Islamic, Early Medieval, Gothic and Late Gothic.

Bayeux Tapestry
Here you can read the tale told by the Bayeux Tapestry -
The story of William the Conqueror and Harold, Earl of Wessex, the men who led the Norman and Saxon armies in 1066. William's defeat of Harold at the Battle of Hastings ensured the success of the Norman invasion of England

Byzantine Art
Site created by Dr. Basic from the University of Oklahoma for his classes. Information on the art of the early Christian Church, the 6th century, the monuments of Ravenna, iconoclasm, and the Macedonian and Comnene Dynasties through the Latin occupation of the Constantinople and the Palaiologan Period. Hundreds of images, all labeled are provided.

Celtic Art and Culture
This University of North Carolina site features links to information on Celtic Christian Celtic art.

Digital Architecture
Early and High Gothic Architecture is discussed here. Site created by Prof. Howe at Boston College.

Gallery: of Byzantine Images
Well constructed site created at Fordham University. Images are organized under the following "exhibit" forms: Icons, Monasteries, Constantinople, Mistra, Ravenna and miscellaneous.

Glories of Byzantium: Metropolitan Museum Of Art
This Metropolitan Museum of Art's on-line exploration of Byzantium was created in conjunction with the international loan exhibition The Glory of Byzantium. Beautiful photographs of objects from the exhibit with accompanying text are provided.

The Gothic Cathedral
Excellent and creative site providing images and information on the Cathedrals of Salisbury, Canterbury, Beauvais, Reims, Chartres, Strasburg, Avignon and more.

Gothic Dreams
Very slick online, interactive introduction to Gothic architecture.

Gothic Painting
This site includes links to information on International Gothic Style, Innovations in the North (Van Eyck) and Late Gothic Art (Busch, Grunwald, Durer, and Holbein). This site is part of the WebMuseum site.

Hagia Sophia
Photographs of all areas of this jewel of Byzantine architecture.

History of Gothic Architecture
Photographs and, sometimes, descriptions of buildings represented.

Icon Painting
This site contains collections of Icons combined with the artists' biographies and with discussions of particular works, schools, movements, and styles. In addition, it provides bibliographical references and links to related sites.

Images Of Medieval Art And Architecture
A collection of architectural images from the Middle Ages, as well as maps from William Shepherd's Historical Atlas and glossary. Included for many of the buildings is a map of its location, a floor plan, photos, and a brief description. Currently, structures from France and England are represented.

Labyrinth Medieval Art
Six valuable links, including one to the Cloisters (Metropolitan Museum Of Art) are provided through this Georgetown University site.

Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry
Documentation and images from this beautiful book of the hours.

Medieval Architecture in France
This site was selected by the Librarian's Index as a valuable resource. Lists are organized alphabetically. Included for many of the buildings is a map of its location, a floor plan, photos, and a brief description.

Medieval and Early Christian Art
Small but well documented online exhibit of art from the University of Saskatchewan.

Medieval Paintings in the South of France
This site displays paintings depicting daily and religious life and information on painting techniques.

Romanesque Architecture in France
11th through 12th century architecture and sculpture. Not all of this site has been translated from the French yet.

Time Line: Middle Ages Metropolitan Museum of Art
Click the images on this timeline for more specific selections from the MET's huge collection.

While primarily a history site for exploring the history of Medieval Britain from the time of Alfred the Great, through the Norman Conquest and up to the start of the Tudor Age, this site does provide virtual places, 3-D buildings that permit you to experience Medieval and Elizabethan architecture.

Viking Art
Interesting examples of Viking Art from the centuries between 700-1200 A.D. The commercial links on this site don't seem to be working, but all the art history links are.


The Art of Renaissance Science
What did science have to do with art in the Renaissance? Science and art were inextricably linked during the Renaissance, one supporting and expanding the limits of the other. Think of the notebooks of DaVinci, of the fine physiognomy in the sculpture of Michelangelo and of the importance of proportion in architecture and the golden mean or triangle in the arts. This essay by John Boyd-Brent, M.A.(Royal College of Art) elaborates on all of this, discussing the major players from Brunelleschi and Da Vinci to Galleo. kch

Brunelleschi's Monograph
Rather lengthy text on Brunelleschi and his achievements.

Leonardo DaVinci Homepage
This resource for teachers and students developed by the Museum of Science, Boston, includes biographical information, essays on his work and additional links.

Leonardo DaVinci's Codex Leicester
This is an online version of an important exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History. "This is an exhibition of the only manuscript by Leonardo DaVinci (1452 - 1519) still in private hands and the only one in America. The presentation offers an in-depth view of the scientific thinking of one of the greatest geniuses in the history of the western world. The Codex Leicester, written between 1506 and 1510, opens a window onto the mind of the awe-inspiring Renaissance artist, scientist, and thinker, while illuminating both the scientific process itself and the creativity of that process."

Harmony and Proportion
An online essay on music, geometry and mathematics in the Renaissance. This is interesting background information to the art and culture in the Renaissance. (For instance, to the Golden mean and philosophy of art.)

History Of Renaissance Architecture
Slides from a University of Virginia class in art history.

Innovative Engineers of Renaissance
Online version of a traveling exhibit on the subject. The works of Brunelleschi, the Sienese engineers and Leonardo are all covered here.

Italian Painting of the 15th Century : The National Gallery of Art
This site presents art from this important museum through brief selected tours of the following: Painting in Siena in the 14th and Early 15th Centuries; The Early Renaissance in Florence; Patrons and Artists in Late 15th-Century Florence and Venetian Painting in the Early Renaissance.

Italian Painting of the 16th Century : The National Gallery of Art
This site presents brief selected tours of the following: Raphael; Venice and the North; Fresco Cycle with the Story of Procris and Cephalus; The Feast of the Gods; Giorgione and the High Renaissance in Venice; Mannerism; Titian and the Late Renaissance in Venice; and Venetian Painting in the Later Sixteenth Century.

Metropolitan Museum of Art - Timeline: The Renaissance
Click on images in this timeline and delve deeper into the a region andperiod of art between 1400 and 1600. The cream of the MET's renaissance collection is displayed on this wonderful site.

Michelangelo Buonarroti: 1475-1564
The life and works of the Renaissance artist during his early life, mid years, and final days. It includes links to numerous illustrations as well as related sites. Part of the commercial site of Michelangelo.Com, a Website design company.

Northern European Painting 15th - 16th Century: National Gallery of Art
This site presents brief selected tours of the following: Netherlandish Painting in the 1400s;
15th- and Early 16th-Century Germany; Netherlandish and Spanish Altarpieces in the Late 1400s and Early 1500s and Antwerp in the Early 1500s.

The Nuremberg Chronicle
The Nuremberg Chronicle is a pictorial history of the earth from creation to the 1490s published in 1493. It was illustrated and engraved by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff and Albrecht Dürer, and printed andpublished by Anton Koberger. The Chronicle is the first instance of partnerships shown between artists and patrons. Black and white images can be a little blurry at times.

The Renaissance: CPB/Annenberg Project
This is an online companion piece to a PBS television program on the Renaissance. Images and text are combined to document the social, cultural and economic forces that shaped the Renaissance.

A commercial art history dictionary, which gives a brief definition of the Renaissance and substantial photographed examples of paintings of the period.

Renaissance Art - 15th Century
Several hundred sites covering general information during this period, as well as more specialized sites covering 15th-Century Art in Northern Europe & Spain and 15th-century Italian Art. This well constructed site is the creation of Professor Witcombe's at Sweet Briar College.

Renaissance Art - 16th-Century
Over 500 links to sites covering general information during this period, aswell as more specialized sites covering the Italian High Renaissance and Mannerism and the 16th-century art of Northern Europe and Spain. This is part of the highly regarded Art History site created and maintained by Professor Witcombe at Sweet Briar College...

Uffizi Gallery
Description and photographs of this important site.

Vasari (1511-1574): Lives of the Artists, selections
English translation of selections from Vasari's classic biography of Renaissance artists.

Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects
Quotes from Vasari's text, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects, are combined with images of the objects Varari was describing. The web sites author states, "I do not aim to reproduce Vasari's text here; my intention is rather to assemble an archive of those works which Vasari mentions in the Lives. Vasari's text is best perused in some other medium." This is a unique way to display those works described by Vasari.

Vatican Exhibit - Library of Congress
This site is an online version of "ROME REBORN: THE VATICAN LIBRARY ANdRENAISSANCE CULTURE presents some 200 of the Vatican Library's most precious manuscripts, books, and maps--many of which played a key role in the humanist recovery of the classical heritage of Greece and Rome. The exhibition presents the untold story of the Vatican Library as the intellectual driving force behind the emergence of Rome as a political and scholarly superpower during the Renaissance".


Baroque - 18th Century

Art and Culture Network: Baroque Art
Click the small box on the right that reads, Related Artists, for links to pages on Peter Paul Rubens,
Rembrandt, Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Leyster and Johannes Vermeer. Leyster and Gentileschi are both female artists, and are very worth knowing about!

Baroque Architecture of St. Petersburg
Photographs of the structures with architects name given.

Baroque and Rococo Art : ImageSearch
Hundreds of images from the period can be searched by category on search engine. Excellent visuals, all labeled.

Baroque Art
This is an excellent index of all the major sites featuring Baroque Art, some quite specialized. This site was created and is maintained by Professor Chris Whitcomb at Sweet Briar College and is part of a larger site that is one of the best online. Links are updated regularly.

Baroque Art Grids
An index to many links organized by period, including Early, Middle, Mature and Late Baroque, and country, including Britain, France, Spain/Portugal, Spanish Netherlands, Dutch Republic, Germany and Austria.

Baroque Art: Index of Major museum collections
Links to most of the MAJOR collections of Baroque and Rococo art in the world including the Hermitage Musuem, Alte Pinakothek in Munichen, the Kunsthitorischen Museum in Wien, Louvre in Paris, National Gallery in London and Prado in Madrid.

Baroque Art: MNA - Museum Nacional D'Art de Catalunya
A collection of well known, and not as well known artists including, Francesco del Cossa, Berruguete, Ayne Bru, Titian, Tintoretto, Bassano, Sebastiano del Piombo, El Greco, Morales, Cranach, Carracci, Rubens, Ribera, Diego Velázquez, Francisco de Zurbarán, Massimo Stanzione, Vaccaro, Viladomat, Tiepolo, Goya and Fragonard. Text in English accompanies all images in this very well designed site.

Baroque Art: Metropolitan Museum
Paintings and their descriptions are presented here. Also, click here to view the current exhibit on Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting, which shows how one age influenced another.

Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
Brief description of the artist.

Bibliography for Florentine Baroque Art
This very complete bibliography has been compiled by Professor Miles Chappell of the Department of Art and Art History at the College of William and Mary.

Blenheim Palace
Web site for this early 18th century British palace, which incidentally, was the birthplace of Winston Churchill.

The Development of Western Civilization - World History : Baroque
History, art, architecture, literature and drama of the period.

Dutch and Flemish Painting: National Gallery of Art
Online tours include Dutch landscapes and seascapes and the works of Rubens, Hals, Van Dyck and Vermeer.

18th Century Art
This is an excellent index of all the major sites featuring 18th century Western Art, some quite specialized. This site was created and is maintained by Professor Chris Whitcomb at Sweet Briar College and is part of a larger site that is one of the best online art history resources there is.

18th Century Painting
The neoclassical works of Gavin Hamilton and J.B. Greuze and the Romanticism of George Stubbs are featured here.

France and the Age of Enlightenment
Site providing cultural information about France in the latter half of the 18th century.

French and Italian painting of the 18th century - National Gallery of Art
Online tours of the works of Boucher, Fragonard, Chardin, Wattau and of Neo-Classicism.

French Revolutionary Pamphlets
An experiment to determine optimal parameters for the network distribution of rare text page images, with navigation aids so that the user might simply read a book online. A series of hard to find pamphlets published during the French Revolution have been digitized. Done by Mark Olsen at the ARTFL Project, University of Chicago.

Artemisia Gentileschi
Short description of this important female artist's work and life. Site maintained at University of Arizona.

William Hogarth and 18th-Century Print Culture
Essays and images of Hogarth.

Renaissance and Baroque Art Links
A very complete site linking to all major artists of the period and even the music of the period.

Rococo Art: Overview from the National Gallery
Tour: 18th-Century France including information on Rococo and Watteau and links to further information on Fragonard, Chardin and Boucher.

The Triumph of Baroque: Architecture in Europe 1600 - 1750 - National Gallery of Art
Online version of an exhibition from 2000. Well-researched and detailed text and audio accompanies pristine photographs of architecture, paintings and sculpture of the period.

Velázquez "Las Meninas"
This excerpt discussing Valazquez's painting of the Infanta Dona Margarita is from Kenneth Clark's, "Looking at Pictures".

Vermeer : Johannes Vermeer House & Delft Geography
Text and quick time movies are used here to present a unique view of the art and times of Johannes Vermeer. View Vermeer's home, and take a walking tour of Delft.

Versailles - Tour
View the architecture of this opulent structure built by Louis the Fourteenth.

Excellent index of the works of Watteau. After clicking on the period you are interested and you will be given a selection of works to view. Click on the i for more information on the work. Click on the work to view the piece in magnified detail.

Jean-Antoine Watteau
Biographical information and images from the Getty Museum of Watteau's work.

21st Century

Aesthetics: Philosophy and the Arts: An Introduction to Aesthetics
This site is a companion to a class offered at Baylor University by Prof. Duncan. While you can't take the course online if you are not a Baylor student, you can benefit from the resources and bibliographies provided here. Links to a list of readings for each lesson are given, along with images and notes. Some of the texts can be viewed in full-text. Others can not, but the citation is given, and the works can always be located at BCC or through Interlibrary Loan. It's the organization of this site that is expecially useful to students. There is a very good guide to Museums also given.

Art in Context - 21st Century
Links to hundreds of contemporary artists sites.

Companion piece to the PBS series.

Contemporary Art Museum eye/richter.htm
Links to information on contemporary artists.

Hirshorn Museum of Contemporary Art
The Smithsonian's museum of modern art.

Links to pages on many contemporary artists including Luepertz, Twombly and Francesico Clemente.

Gerhard Richter -
Article on Richter's work and on his recent retrospective. Examples of his work are given. This is a commercial site. Another site provides this page:

Gerhard Richter - Guggenheim
Biographical materials and examples of work from the collection.

Gerhard Richter
Article about the MOMA retrospective.

"Study of issues relating to modern and post-modern art, includes reviews of recent projects in the arts including photography, film and museum exhibitions. Political issues also addressed." Very hip.

The Walker Art Center
New York has the Whitney and Minneapolis has the Walker. Another important venue of international contemporary art.

Whitney Museum Of Art
The Whitney is famous for its Biennale Exhibit featuring the most influential works of contemporary art. This is one of the most important venues for 21st century art in the world.

19th Century


19th Century Art
This is an excellent index of all the major sites featuring 19th century Western Art, some quite specialized. This site was created and is maintained by Professor Chris Whitcomb at Sweet Briar College and is part of a larger site that is one of the best online art history resources there is. Links are updated continuously.

19th Century Painting
This site features image files of artists' works organized by movement, including such movements as Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, Neo and Post-Impressionism and Symbolism. Site is maintained by Prof. Howe, at Boston College.


Digital Archive of Architecture
From the Greek revival of Edinburgh to the Vienna Secession, this Boston College site created by Professor Jeffery Howe features color slides as examples of selected 19th century Western architectural styles.

Great Exhibition of 1851
Online essay with graphics describing the history and importance of the Great Exhibition, a show place for not only new inventions and ideas but of the latest innovations in architecture and design..

Mackintosh: Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society
Biographical information, virtual tour of Mackintosh sites, news and events pertinent to the architecture and design created by this important Scottish architect.

Neo-Gothic Architecture - Amsterdam
The gingerbread styled brick neo-gothic buildings of Amsterdam are featured here.

Neo-Gothic Architecture - England and India
This site, maintained at St. Mary's College in Maryland, discusses the history of neo-gothic architecture not only in Great Britain but in India.

Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin
Pugin was Great Britain's foremost architect and designer of the nineteenth century. This extensive site provides information about his life and his work in throughout England and in London, where he designed the Houses of Parliament.

Tour Eiffel
Offical site of this 19th century engineering wonder.

Art Noveau, Arts & Crafts and Victorian

Arts in Victorian Britain
This site provides information on the architecture, painting, iconography, sculpture, design, photography, and illustrations of the period. Very thorough.

British Arts and Crafts
Well constructed, Minneapolis Institute of the Arts site created discussing William Morris and other notables of this movement, with examples of their work.

Founders Of The Arts & Crafts Movement 1870 - 1900
An anthology of writings on interior design by William Morris and his contemporaries, with information about the early years of the Arts & Crafts Movement in England and America.

European Art Noveau
This Minneapolis Instutue of Art site includes text, images and video clips to present the organic form and motifs evident in the fine and decorative arts of this period.

La Belle Époque
This is a truly beautiful site. Well organized, it presents historical data as well as long essays with many visuals on Art Nouveau, Advertising of the Belle Époque, the art of Antonio de la Ganidara and music of Mahler and examples of architecture and art in those cities where exceptional examples exist, including: Bratislava, Bruxelles, Darmstadt, Dresden, Lille, Munich, Nancy, Antwerp, Offenbach, Barcelona, Glasgow, Paris and Wien.

The Pre-Raphelite Brotherhood
A brief online essay with links to sites about such artists as Gabriel Rosetti, William Cowper, William Morris and Sir Edmund Burne-Jones.

Pre-Raphelite Critic
This site provides contemporary criticism on the Pre-Raphelite movement. Reviews are indexed by author, title and date. Paintings are organized A - Z by artist. There is information on the Pre-Raphelite's use of photography. There are even audio files providing the poetry of the time. This site was created by Professor Tobin, through Duquesne University's English Department

Pre-Raphelite Passion
Biographical information about the artists and their works organized by theme. Pretty site.

Pre-Raphelite Pictures
Text and images of the works of Blair-Leighton, Burne-Jones, Collier, Cowper, Crane, Dicksee, Hunt, Millais, Rossetti, Strudwick, and Waterhouse.

Women Painters and Illustrators
Despite great odds in a society where women found little opportunity to become painters, there were a number of truly wonderful women artists. This site provides biographical information about them with links to other pages providing image and text files.

The William Morris Society
"This site is devoted to William Morris (1834-96), the British craftsman, designer, writer, typographer, and Socialist. It aims to present news of Morris-related events and publications; information about the worldwide William Morris Society; materials relating to the life and work of Morris, his friends and followers; and links to other places of interest on the Internet"

Victorian Art in Britain
An excellent site leading to online exhibits and images of the works, and lengthy discussion of the lives of Victorian painters. Biographical material sometimes includes obituaries from the London Times as well as contemporary commentary. Victorian gallery tours are also included here as is a discussion of the history of art in this period, and discussion of the subjects and even muses of the day. The site is a labor of love created by Paul Ripley, who also leads art tours in Great Britain.

Victorian Art in England
Hundreds of links to sites discussing art in Victorian England.

Classicism, Romanticism and Realism

Examples of the work and discussion of the life of this dramatic painter.

Joseph Mallard William Turner
This site provides a well-researched, long essay, with ample examples of Turner's work.

Paris in the 19th century
Good background information about the culture and literature of 19th century Paris.

The Romantic Movement
Online essay on the Romantic Movement and its influences with links to Classicism as well as to pages about the artists of the period.

Romanticism in Dresden
Online essay concentrating on the German Romantic Movement in Dresden.

William Blake Archive
The works of Blake and his circle, including beautiful electronic copies of plates from his illuminated books, are featured in this archive, as well as links to additional resources. This hypermedia archive is sponsored by the Library of Congress and supported by the Preservation and Access Division of the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities at the University of Virginia, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Sun Microsystems and the Inso Corporation.

William Blake's Life
Essays on Blake's life, art and writings. Discussion of the techniques he used in his paintings.

Visionary Artists
A commercial site that sells prints, this web site also provides information on a number of artists with lovely examples of their works. You can enlarge these images to see the detail.

Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and late 19th century French

The Annenberg Collection of Impressionist and Postimpressionist{F74B332B-FFCA-11D3-936F-00902786BF44}
The Annenberg Collection of Impressionist and Postimpressionist Masterpieces features fifty-three works by Manet, Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Picasso on display at The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

A very brief page on the work of Cézanne with links to the Philadelphia Museum of Art and to an excerpt of a documentary on the painter.

Conversations with Cézanne: Documents of Twentieth-Century Art
An advertisement for a book that provides a hefty excerpt that is of interest.

French Painting of the 19th Century
National Gallery of Art site providing audio tours as well as image and text files covering French artists from Manet through Monet and Gaugin.

Giverny and Vernon
Site of the location much loved by Monet. Pictures of Monet's home and the gardens that inspired him.

Web Museum site with links to all the French impressionists including Renoir, Monet, Guillaumin, Pissarro, and Sisley, and the post-impressionists through Cezanne. Description of movements are given, as is biographical material about the artists and examples of their work.

The Impressionists
Online version of an A&E television documentary about the Impressionists. The artists featured include Renoir, Degas, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Bazille, Sisley and Manet. Interactive activities are also featured.

Impressionist Still Life
Online discussion of an exhibit highlighting this theme, held at the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C and Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

The Irish Impressionists
During the latter half of the 19th century, Irish artists, who traditionally had gone to England to further their studies, gravitated towards Paris, where they were influenced by French Impressionism. The work of these painters is featured on this interesting site.

Musee d'Orsee
The cream of French Impressionism on display in France is collected at this great museum in Paris. Click on collections to view a selection of paintings, including Rouen Cathedral. Harmony in Blue, by Claude Monet.

The Posters of Tolouse Lautrec
Online version of an exhibit of Lautrec's work held at the San Diego Museum. In addition to Lautrec's posters, there is discussion of printmaking and of the culture and personalities who shaped Paris in the late 19th century.

Pierre Auguste Renoir
Selected works, biographical information and quotations.

Rodin Web
The RODIN-WEB offers images, links and book recommendations relating to the French sculptor and draftsman AUGUSTE RODIN (1840-1917). Included here are online essays, overview of the corpus of his work, and upcoming events.

Van Gogh and Gaugin
This Art Institute of Chicago site features essays documenting the interaction in Brittany and Arles of these two painters, a slide show of their work and a bibliography. This is a companion site to an exhibit held in 2002.


Edvard Munch
This site, which is still under construction, provides useful biographical information, links to image files of the works of Edvard Munch and of photographs.

Edvard Munch
Since purchasing its first painting in 1891, the Nasjonalgalleriet in Olso has acquired many of the outstanding works of Munch. This website includes ample explanatory text for each painting, clear images of the work and an accompanying bibliography.

Symbolist Art
This site is organized by artist and provides a brief article on each and selections of their work. Click on painting to enlarge it.

20th Century

Peggy Guggenheim Collection
The official site of The Peggy Guggenheim Collection, which is the most important museum in Italy for European and American art of the first half of the 20th century.

Museum Of Modern Art
Some consider this to be the most important and influential venue of 20th century art. While the museum is being renovated, this online site continues to feature some of the jewels from the permanent exhibition, including works by Fernand Leger, Willem de Kooning, Van Gogh, Giacometti and Johns. For the most important paintings in the collection, you can also go to

20th Century Art
This is an excellent index of all the major sites featuring 20th century Western Art, some quite specialized. This site was created and is maintained by Professor Chris Whitcomb at Sweet Briar College and is part of a larger site that is one of the best online art history resources there is. Links are updated continuously.

Abstract Expressionism

Abstract Expressionism
History of abstract expressionism is given along with links to abstraction in the sister arts of photography, music, theater, architecture, film and dance.

Francis Bacon
Web Museum site featuring biographical information.

Beat Art Gallery
Online exhibit created by students at Saint Francis University, and intended to provide an introduction to Abstract Expressionism and the art of the 1950s. Highlighted is the work of Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Willem deKooning and Helen Frankenthaler.

Helen Frankenthaler - Prints
A number of very good reproductions of the work of Frankenthaler.

Frankenthaler - After Mountains and Sea: Frankenthaler 1956-1959
Discussion of Frankenthaler's work from an exhibit at the Guggenheim.

de Kooning: The Late Paintings, the 1980s
Includes a few selected works from the 1980's, when deKooning was already suffering from the Alzheimer's, and an essay about the American abstract expressionist painter. Online companion to 1997 exhibit of the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Despite his illness, his work still shows a mastery of color and form.

Willem de Kooning
Quotes from critics and from de Kooning himself, along with a bibliography are included here. Site is maintained by Molly Donovan at Southern Methodist University.

Willem de
Commercial site featuring a biography page and links to other sites, and to books and films about de Kooning.

Pollock - National Gallery of Art
Very well organized site featuring biographical information, examples of the works of the artist and a description of his artistic process.

Pollock Krasner House
Discussion of the work of Pollock along with online information on his Long Island Studio. The preservation and development of this unique site has been undertaken by the Stony Brook Foundation, Inc., a non-profit affiliate of Stony Brook University. A calendar of events, news, information on the study center, further links, and an article on Pollack's wife, Lee Krasner is also given.

Jackson Pollock
Hans Namuth photographs of the artist are featured on this ArtNews site

Jackson Pollock - The Guggenheim
Biographical information with links to works in the collection of the Guggenheim Museum in New York City.

Jackson Pollock : Jackson Pollock--and True and False Ambition: The Urgent Difference
Article on Pollock by Dorothy Koppelman. Site maintained by the non -profit gallery, Art Terrain.

Jackson Pollock - Homage Page
Created by artist, Harry Hilson, this New World Arts Magazine article features examples of some of Pollock's paintings.

Jackson Pollock - PBS online
Online interview by Jim Lehere of Jeffrey Brown and Kirk Varnedoe on the influence of Jackson Pollock.

National Gallery of art web site, discusses Rothko, his early influences and middle and later works.

Mark Rothko
Examples of works by the artist and links to web sites of interest. This site is maintained by G. Gilbert, Professor of Linguistics at Southern Illinois University

Mark Rothko
Information on and example of works by Rothko. While the page is brief, the images are very clear. This page is from Catholic University of America.

Rothko and Pollack
Lesson plan created by the Knox Gallery featuring discussion and exercises regarding the artists' works.

Rothko - The Guggenheim
Web site of the Guggenheim museum, this page features a biography of Rothko.


Architecture of Sweden
Site features mostly the work of Erik Gunnar Asplund.

Art Deco
Brief discussion of Art Deco with photographs of selected buildings.

Art Deco Architecture
History, examples of works, discussion on the architects of the period, societies and additional links.

Art Deco in Cuba
A Dutch site that discusses and gives photographic examples of art deco in Cuba. While Cuba might be better known for it's examples of Spanish Colonial architecture, there's a surprising amount of art deco on this island country.

Bauhaus Archive & Museum of Design
Click on Bauhaus 1919 - 1933 for a history of this important movement in the history of 20th century German and world architecture. Includes archival photographs and the manifesto of Gropius.

British Architecture of the 20th Century - 20th Century
Links to sites featuring the work of Vosey, Alison & Peter, James Stirling, Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, Sir Norman Foster and more.

Chicago School
Brief description of this early 20th century movement.

Critical Regionalism
In the words of Kenneth Frampton, Critical Regionalism understands culture "not as something given and relatively immutable, but rather as something which has, at least today, to be self-consciously cultivated." This site discusses this style and provides links to a site about architect Mario Botta.

Not so much a style, as a philosophy of inquiry developed by French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Many other disciplines, from psychology to cinema studies, jumped onto the deconstructivist bandwagon. In the case of architects, they borrowed certain concepts from Deconstruction and "focused on a series of theoretical projects and sought to decenter the concept of classical order and space." This site discusses Deconstruction and provides a link to the work of architect, Peter Eisenman.

Digital American Architecture
Impressive, and extensive Boston College sponsored site, featuring Professor Howe's colored slides of most of the notable designs of major 20th century architects.

Images of the works of Gropius, one of the founders of the Bauhaus movement.

Images of Art and Architecture
"You will find some 4000 digitized reproductions of works of art and architecture ranging from the period before written history through the 20th century. Included here are representative examples from around the globe. User friendly, searchable database.

LeCorbusier -- Villa Savoye
Slides and text from Professor Howe's project at Boston College.

Memphis Originals: Where are they now?
The Memphis group was an extremely influential force in late 20th century architecture. This site discusses the accomplishments of its members and where they are now.

Modernist Architecture
Brief history of Modernist architecture with links to related individual architects.

Sky Scrapers- 1925-1945
Boston College's Digital Archive of American Architecture site featuring photographs of landmarks of 20th century architecture. For sky scrapers between 1945 - 1960, go to, for 1960 to 2000, go to For earlier works, from 1900 to 1925, go to

Twentieth Century and Modern Architecture
Mostly LeCorbusier, these slides were created by Howard Partridge.

Mies Van der Rohe
Examples of the works of Van der Rohe are displayed as slides.

Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation
Biographical and archival information as well as bibliographies.

Wright -- Finding Mr. Wright
A photojourney to some of the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, including his early years, the Prairie Style, non-residential and residential works from the 1920'3 through the 1950's, links, directories and bibliographies.

Frank Lloyd Wright at Oak Park
360 degree views of the Nathan Moore and Peter Beachy homes.


George Braque
Biographical information and images of the artist's works. Graphics courtesy of the Artist's Rights Society. Reproduction is prohibited.

George Braque - Guggenheim
Biographical information, as well as examples of works housed at the Guggenheim Museum in New York City.

Braque -
Encyclopedia Britannica entry of the artist's biography.

Braque and Hemingway
Paragraph on Braque and Hemingway, as well as links to some of Braque's paintings. Part of a site on the influence of artists, including Picasso, on Hemingway which was created by Professor Lane, Malaspina University.

Czech Cubism
Tour of cubist architecture and art in the Czech Republic.

Artlex site with numerous illustrations of Cubist works and accompanying (brief) text.

Cubism 1926
WebMuseum page with description of Picasso's Guernica.

Cubism, cubists: Picasso and Braque, and their great influences
While not an institution sponsored web page, this one provides good information and some valuable links. Be aware, thought, that the host is and that advertisements are part of this site.

Picasso and Cubism
WebMuseum site with brief essay.

Dadism & Surrealism

Chagall Windows on Exhibit
Images of the gorgeous windows from the Synagogue of the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center created by Chagall in the early 1960's.

DaDa Online
Information on DaDa art, artists, poems, prose and more.

Dalí Museum
The Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida has biographical information and a history, with examples, of the four periods of Salvador Dalí's painting: early, transitional, surreal, and classic.

Max Ernst
Discussion and image of Ernst's, The Beautiful Season, excerpted from the book, Max Ernst: A Retrospective.

International Dada Archive
"This Web site is designed to provide information on the resources and services of the International Dada Archive at the University of Iowa Libraries. It is the gateway to the International Online Bibliography of Dada. As the site is developed, it will also become a resource for additional information about the historic Dada movement and the individual Dada writers and artists, as well as links to other Internet resources"

Man Ray: Photèque Numérique/Digital Photographic Library
This is a wonderfully creative site! "A searchable collection of works of the artist Man Ray, including photographs, paintings, drawings, sculpture, and stills from his films. Search by category or theme. There is also a brief biography in the form of a timeline. Also available in French."

Man Ray Trust
Image archive, biographical information, and exhibitions. "This site provides visitors with the opportunity to explore the life and work of Man Ray."

Vingt-Cinq Poems- Tristan Tzara
Twenty five poems from the brilliant artists that gave us the Dadaist Manifesto. For Dada, the publication edited by Tzara, click here:

What is Surrealism? Text by Andre Breton
Classic work.


Art Science Research
While navigating this site can be a bit confusing, once you realize that all the good stuff is on the bottom, you'll have access to articles, commentary and images on and about Marcel Duchamp. Click on articles, or the Harvard Symposium down below. (Or on anything else that seems interesting.)

Marcel Duchamp
The Marcel Duchamp World Community -- This site offers a news, events, publications, papers -- anything related to Marcel Duchamp and his larger circle of friends in Dada and Surrealism. It is sponsored and maintained by the Art Science Research Laboratory.

Marcel Duchamp
Brief biography about the artist with links to Study for the Chocolate Grinder and no. 2 You-Me .

Encounters with Duchamp
Unique interactive site where you can click on images and even hear Master Duchamp speak about The Large Glass. There is a scrapbook from the Philadelphia Museum of Art which houses many of Duchamp's works, a bibliography, and numerous links.

Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp
Does this site make a difference? Does it matter? Time line and facts about the artists manage not to diminish the mystery while still illuminating the particulars in an accessible way. Worth a look-see.

Taking Jokes By Duchamp to Another Level of Art
Article by Sarah Boxer on Duchamp from the New York Times.

Tout Fait
Online journal dedicated to study of Marcel Duchamp and his art.


Bauhaus Museum of Design
History, examples of work and information on this important institution.

Blau Reiter Schule
Brief description with illustrations of the Blue Rider Sschool which included the work of Kandinsy, Franz Marc, Auguste Macke, and Gabriele Munter.

WebMuseum site featuring an introduction to Expressionism with links to information on individual artists, in particular, Egon Schiele.

Oberlin College's Allen Art Museum has done a nice job highlighting works of Expressionism from their

Kandinsky: Compositions
Illustrated reviews by Mark Harden of Magdalena Dabrowski's book on Kandinsky collection.

Egon Schiele
While this site is in German, I've put it up as it displays the significant examples of Schiele's work, which have been nicely scanned in and enlarged for viewing. The site is at the University at Mainz, the source of the material is a catalog of an exhibit at the Käthe-Kollwitz-Museum in Berlin that ran from October 25. Oktober 1991 through January 31, 1992.


WebMuseum site featuring an introduction to Fauvism with links to information on individual artists.

Henri Matisse and the Fauves
A tour from the collection at the National Gallery, featuring both explanatory text and images. Notice the brilliance of the colors Matisse uses.

Futurism & Constructivism

Startling visuals, full text of essays, and many links to other sites. The black text on a sea of red is a bit anarchistic though.

Futurism and Futurists
This is a huge and quirky site about mostly Italian futurism. Biographical information, discussion of movements, full text in English and Italian, and more. Why I didn't know that the Futurists were such prolific manifesto writers.

Monuments of the Future: Designs by El Lissitzky
Site dedicated to the work of Russian futurist, Lissitzky, it includes more than 175 images of his work, and a foldout montage of an exhibition catalog of 1928

Online commentary on the Museum of Modern Art first U.S. retrospective of the work of Aleksandr Rodchenko (1891-1956), one of the leading Russian artists in the period following the Revolution of October 1917. Born in 1891, Rodchenko came into artistic maturity with the Revolution and later co-founded the Constructivist movement. "Associating the avant-garde goal of artistic progress with the political goal of social progress, the Constructivists regarded their systematic investigations of the material and formal logic of art as essential to the creation of a Communist society." Includes a bibliography.

Jasper Johns

American Masters - Jasper Johns
Online version of the PBS special on this remarkable 20th century artist and the many brilliant artists he has worked with including John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg and Merce Cunningham.

Jasper Johns: A Retrospective
Contains a career Chronology and images of Selected Works of the influential American painter and sculptor. See Bibliography for a list of print resources (complete through 1996), including Exhibition Catalogues and Exhibition History. Online companion to the 1996 exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. For selected works you can also go here:

Jasper Johns: National Gallery of Art
A fascinating look at the painting, Perilous Night, by Jasper Johns.


Henri Matisse - PBS Special
Brief discussion of the artist's mural canvas, Dance II.

Henry Matisse
WebMuseum site providing biographical material and examples of the artist's work.

Matisse at the Art Institute of Chicago
Brief discussion of the artist's painting, Bathers by the River.

Matisse at the Guggenheim
Biographical information, as well as the works of Matisse at the Guggenheim Museum in New York.

Matisse at the Hermitage
Wonderfully presentation of this museum's collection. Site provides virtual exhibits and virtual on line (video) tours of the Matisse Room, The Dance 1909-1910, and the Red Room. The camera moves rather quickly, but you can click the moving image at anytime to get it to stop. Click the phrase, "Need Help With Hotmedia", to get technique tips on zoom view and hot media for further viewing enhancement.

Matisse at the National Gallery of Art
Examples of works by Matisse housed at the National Gallery of Art.

Matisse - Picasso - Exhibit at MOMA
The much heralded and long awaited exhibit of these two artists and the influence they may have had on each other is discussed here. Online exhibit.

Matisse at the Tate
Click on the link, Matisse and Picasso Website, in red at the top to view a virtual documentary on the artists. The rest of the Tate site provides descriptions to works but no images.


Jo Bear: The Minimalist Years
Dia Art center article by Lynne Cooke on Jo Bear.

Joseph Beuys at DIA
Essay by Lynne Cooke on Beuys, selected bibliography and a brief biography of the artist.

Joseph Beuys' 7000 Oak Project. Dia site
Essay by Lynne Cooke on Beuys, Chelsea extension, images from quarry, Dokumenta 7, portrait of an art performance, May, 1982 and postcard images. Link to 7000 Oaks.

Legacy Project: Frank Stella
A unique exhibit of Stella's Polish Village Series. "The Legacy Project offers a channel for mutual recognition across generations and geography. Through scholarly research and innovative presentation, The Legacy Project will create new - and shared - frameworks for cultural expressions of loss, drawn from Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe."

LeWitt: Sol LeWitt exhibit at SFMOMA
Exhibit of LeWitt's work is discussed here along with an overview of the artist's work.

Sol LeWitt: Arts on the Point
Biography and discussion of LeWitt's work, Double Cubes.

Sol LeWitt at the Cleveland Art Museum
Information on Lewitt's, Variations of Incomplete Open Cube, his "most expansive serial project", on his artistic process and on seriality.

Sol LeWitt at DIA
Essay by Lynne Cooke on LeWitt, selected bibliography and a brief biography of the artist.

Sol LeWitt at Franklin Furnace
Frankin Furnace, an art institution's page on LeWitt features his work, Drawing 811, a page from the catalogue of the Pasadena Art Museum, and LeWitt's article, "Sentences on Conceptual Art" in Art Now, 1971.

Minimalism - Guggenheim Museum
Examples from the Guggenheim collection of Minimalist Art, "an extreme economy of means and reduced to the essentials of geometric abstraction", with a description for each painting, once it is enlarged. To view an enlarged image, click on the painting that interests you.

Minimalism : From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brief definition with links to pages on the individual artists who led this mid-twentieth century movement.

Richard Serra at DIA
Essay by Lynne Cooke on Serra, selected bibliography, exhibition images and bibliography.

Serra at DIA: Torqued Images
Essay by Lynne Cooke on Serra's work, press release, checklist, selected bibliography, exhibition images and bibliography. Link to Torqued Ellipses

Frank Stella
A brief biography of artist.

Frank Stella Page
Page of links created at Trinity College Prep. in Australia. Includes links to museums exhibiting Stella's works.

Stung By Splendor: Stella at Cooper Union
Brief but intelligent essay on Stella upon his who is the first recipient of the Robert Gwathmey Chair in Art and Architecture at The Cooper Union.

Modernism & Post-Modernism

Art Deco
A very pleasant site covering architecture, interior and industrial design, graphics, film and music.

The Culture of Modernism
Long essay on Modernism written by a Professor Gorand Sorrenson, from the Department of Semiotics at Lund University in Sweden for his classes. Touches on many of the hip themes in contemporary art criticism including art and signification, art and transgression, and the influence of Lyotard.

De Stijl and the Modern Movement
Description of these movements from an industrial design perspective.

Klimt Forum
Discussion of Klimt's early through late works, beautiful visuals and sound files. There is even a Klimt Forum that you can participate in. If you can't get to Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum, this is an alternative.

This excellent site, created by the Minneapolis Institute of the Arts, provides a time line that allows you to navigate the many subdivisions of modernism, including British and American Arts and Crafts, European and American Art Nouveau, Wiener Werkstatte, de Stijl, Bauhaus, and European and American Art Deco.

Modernism: Art for Art's Sake
Professor Christopher Whitcomb, probably the most prolific producer of relevant internet resources on the WEB, created this site. He discusses the root of modernism, modernism and politics, post-modernism and the end of art (as we know it?). He also provides a bibliography.

Modernist Architecture
Brief history of Modernist architecture with links to related individual architects.

Discussion of post-modernism, with numerous photographs of design works.

From the very hip online magazine, Solas, comes these informative articles on post-modernism and photography, post-modernism and art and post-modernism and the body.


Cubism, cubists: Picasso and Braque, and their great influences
While not an institution sponsored web page, this one provides good information and some valuable links. Be aware, thought, that the host is and that advertisements are part of this site.

On-Line Picasso Project
" A searchable catalog of thousands of Pablo Picasso's works. There is a brief description, location information, and a small thumbnail image of each work. There are also links to museums with Picasso collections, biographical information, an extensive bibliography, and an archive of articles about the artist."

Picasso and Cubism
WebMuseum site with brief essay.

Picasso and Hemingway
Paragraph on Picasso and Hemingway, as well as links to some of Picasso's paintings from this period. Part of a site on the influence of artists, including Braque, on Hemingway which was created by Professor Lane, Malaspina University.

Picasso & Matisse- Exhibit at MOMA
The much heralded and long awaited exhibit of these two artists and the influence they may have had on each other is discussed here. Online exhibit.

Pop Art (For Warhol see Warhol below)

Christo und Jeanne-Claude: The Art of Christo and Jeanne-Claude
He's wrapped everything from the Arch at Washington Square to islands. This site includes information on current works, photos of past works, bibliographies and contact information.

Jim Dine: Photographs
This site features an exhibit of six "enigmatic photographs" by Jim Dine, "widely recognized as a key player in Pop Art, Happenings, and... printmaking." Photographs dated 1996 through 1997. Includes essay and video. From the California Museum of Photography, University of California, Riverside.

Fluxes artists on fluxes art.

Index of Pop-Artists
A complete list of Pop Artists with biographical information as well as examples of their work and outside links to additional sites. All artists are represented here including Red Grooms, Warhol, Christo, Rauschenberg, Lichtenstein, Oldenburg and many, many more.

Roy Lichtenstein Foundation
"Gorgeous images shoulder-to-shoulder with practical information about this key pop artist. Includes a chronology, bibliography, filmography, descriptions of sculptures and murals, and more. The sections for upcoming, recent, and past exhibitions include many links to examples of Lichtenstein's work."

Pop Art Index
Links to sites about all the major artists of the period.

Robert Rauschenberg
American Masters series online companion piece featuring Rauschenberg.

Rauschenberg at the Guggenheim
Biography and links to works of the artists housed at the Guggenheim Museum.


The Warhol
"A well-designed introduction to the Pittsburgh, PA, Andy Warhol Museum, with biographical and artistic information about the pop artist. General information about the museum, current exhibit information, and a calendar of special events are included." This interactive site even allows you to make your own silk screen online!

Warhol at Dia
Essay by Lynne Cooke, bibliography and brief biography of the artist.

American Art

Art Museum of the Americas
Art of North and South America. Beautiful site with graphics and accompanying descriptions of works and exhibits.

Arts USA
American Council for the Arts site provides advocacy, congressional, legislative, policy, and grant-related information sources.

Alexandar Calder
Site honoring and describing the work of Alexander Calder.

Chicago: Judy Chicago: Through the Flower
" Contains a biography and annotated gallery of projects and works of art by the "artist, author, [and] feminist." From the nonprofit organization Through the Flower, "whose mission is to create a cultural legacy built upon the vision embodied in the work of Judy Chicago."

The glass sculpture of Chihuly with many pictures of his work as well as biographical and exhibition information.

The Collections at the Archives of American Art
"Spanning the centuries since the founding of America to the present day, the collections of the Archives of American Art comprise the largest source in the world of primary source documentation on the visual arts in America. Contained in the over five thousand collections, are letters, diaries, sketches and sketchbooks, photographs, exhibition catalogs, scrapbooks, business records, art periodicals, and other types of documents, totaling roughly fourteen million items. The collections, combined with approximately three thousand interviews done for AAA's oral history program, and nearly one thousand photographs in AAA's Photographs of Artists Collections, are an endless treasure trove of raw material for art historians and scholars in other fields to explore."

Colonial and 19th Century America
Architecture of the Americas is featured here.

Jasper Johns: A Retrospective
Contains a career Chronology and images of Selected Works of the influential American painter and sculptor. See Bibliography for a list of print resources (complete through 1996), including Exhibition Catalogues and Exhibition History. Online companion to the 1996 exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Roy Lichtenstein Foundation
"Gorgeous images shoulder-to-shoulder with practical information about this key pop artist. Includes a chronology, bibliography, filmography, descriptions of sculptures and murals, and more. The sections for upcoming, recent, and past exhibitions include many links to examples of Lichtenstein's work."

Metropolitan Life: The Ashcan School
Virtual tour of an exhibit held at the Smithsonian Museum of Art. "Metropolitan Lives: The Ashcan Artists and Their New York explores the urban vision of the six Ashcan artists and places their work within the social and cultural context of early-twentieth-century America."

Moran: Thomas Moran
Thomas Moran was initially influenced by the American Pre-Raphaelites, and continued to become one of the great landscape artists of the late 19th and early 20th century. Examples and discussion of his work is presented here by the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.

Native American Art - Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline
Chronology of Native American Art in North America with examples given from the Metropolitan Museum of Art's collection in New York City.

Native American Art - Professor Ron Johnson
Links to images of art from all periods. Professor Johnson teaches at Humboldt State University.

Native American Art - Southwestern Rock Art
This site provides links to sites throughout the Southwest. Photographs of glyphs andimages are labled. Also given is a link to an introductory article is about rock art.

Pre-War American Painting
WebMuseum site featuring a discussion of two 19th-century painters, Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer, and their influence on the course of future art in the United States, in particular the works of Edward Hopper. Links to further information on Hopper are given.

Norman Rockwell Museum
Official site of the museum in Stockbridge.

Norman Rockwell: Drawing the American Dream
Black and white images of sketches and an accompanying text that discusses an exhibit that took place at the Springfield Library and Museums Association, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Rothko - Marc Rothko at the National Gallery
A very well constructed site featuring Rothko's works held at the National Gallery, as well as biographical information and essays about the artist. Use the navigation bar on the bottom of opening page and, then, the arrows to move about in each category.

Robert Smithson was a sculpture of earthworks and terrestrial materials. This site includes photographs of his notable works, as well as examples of his drawings and photographs, online videos of his films and many on his essays. Smithson, who died tragically young, had many fans, not least of which was John Cage.

" Companion to a documentary (part of the PBS American Masters series) about photographer and art impresario Alfred Stieglitz whose work influenced American art and culture in the early twentieth century. Includes an essay about Stieglitz, a timeline of his career, filmmaker interview, and video clips of footage not included in the original documentary. With links to sites featuring work by Stieglitz and his artist associates. "

The Warhol
"A well-designed introduction to the Pittsburgh, PA, Andy Warhol Museum, with biographical and artistic information about the pop artist. General information about the museum, current exhibit information, and a calendar of special events are included."

Grant Wood
A very nice online exhibit of Wood's work from the Cedar Rapids Museum of Art.

Wright -- Finding Mr. Wright
A photojourney to some of the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, including his early years, the Prairie Style, non-residential and residential works from the 1920'3 through the 1950's, links, directories and bibliographies.

W.P.A. - New Deal Art During the Great Depression
While the focus is on the Midwest and California, this site provides ample photographic and textual documentation of WPA projects. Included here are extensive biographies, and a New Deal chronology.

Latin and Central America

Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations
This website, created by Kevin L. Callahan of the University of Minnesota Department of Anthropology, provides extensive data on the culture and history of the Mayan, Mixtecs, Zapotects and Aztecs, including photographs of sites and additional links.

Jack S. Blanton Museum at the University of Texas
One of the few of its kind in the country and one of the finest in the world, the collection of Latin American art at the Blanton includes more than 1,600 works of art, representing over 500 artists from eighteen countries. Selected works from the museum are given here.

Frida Kahlo: Contemporary Thoughts
Frida's paintings, contemporary criticism and an extensive bibliography.
On line journal of art and culture in Latin America. Requires that you register for free in order to access articles.

Lost Empire
Online companion site to the PBS Nova program on the Incas and Andean civilizations.

Alfredo Ramos Martinez
Two murals by the artist are given.

Mesoamerican Art Page : Cultures and Regions
A very good site created by Edgar Martín del Campo, which gives examples of Mesoamerican art and a description of the cultural/religious meaning of the work. Additional information on the site includes descriptions of the gods depicted in Aztec, Huaxtec, Toltec, Mayan and other Mesoamerican art and sculpture, a pronouncing key, additional links and a bibliography.

Mesoamerican Architecture
Photographs pf Teotihuacan, Tikal, Copan, Uxumal, Chichen Itza and many other sites. This site is maintained by the Leo Masuda Architectonic Research Office in Kyoto, Japan.

Mexican Art
This is site is a reference tool for a class by Anne S. de Luenga through ITESM Campus Tampicoon on the history of Mexican Art. It features a table that lists Old World Art periods and Mexican Art periods. The Mexican Art periods include Mesoamerican Art through the Colonial and Independence period to 20th century Muralism. Examples of work and some description are given. As this is for a class, there is a link to exercises. This site can be viewed in English, Spanish and French.

Mexic-Arte Museum, Austin, Texas
A primarily informative, text-based website. The Mexic-Arte Museum is a non-profit museum dedicated to visual and multidisciplinary Latino/Mexican art.

Museo Nacional de Antropologia
The National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico provides this beautiful site featuring the works from its collection. At present the English link is not working, so you'll have to navigate in Spanish. Click Salas to enter the various halls.

Museo de las Américas, Denver, Colorado
Click on area of interest (Ancient, Spanish Colonial or Modern) to see examples and ead a description of this period. This site is bilingual, English/Spanish.

Jose Clemente Orozco
Brief biography and an image of his work, Prometheus. This site is maintained as part of the Mural Conservancy.

Orozco at Dartmouth
This site discusses the murals painted by Orozco at Dartmouth in the 1930's.

Teotihuacan: The City of the Gods
Maps, a chronology, moving pictures (requires QuickTime plug-in), and text cover Teotihuacan's Pyramid of the Sun, of the Moon and of the Feathered Serpent. This site is maintained by Saburo Sugiyama at Arizona State University's Dept. of Anthropology.

Virtual Diego Rivera Museum
Site dedicated to the work of Rivera, the Mexican muralist painter whose outstanding, and politically motivated works, began a whole genre of works referencing realist social content.